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Welcome to the Resonate Architecture guide! This guide is designed to give you a deep dive into the internals of the Resonate server. By the end, you'll have a basic understanding of our three subsystems and the abstractions we have chosen.


Resonate consists of three subsystems:

  • Kernel
  • API
  • AIO

The Kernel implements cooperative concurrency via coroutines, API and AIO implement preemptive concurrency via goroutines. In other words, the Kernel is single threaded, API and AIO are multi threaded.

The API submits requests to the Kernel via the API Submission Queue, the Kernel submits responses to the API via per-request API Completion Queues. Conversely, the Kernel submits requests to the AIO via per-request-type Submission Queues, the AIO submits responses via the AIO Completion Queue.

Submission & Completion Queues

The Kernel interacts with the API subsystem and the AIO subsystem via Submission and Completion Queues, implemented as buffered golang channels. A Submission Queue accepts Submission Queue Entries (SQE), a Completion Queue accepts Completion Queue Entries (CQE). Both SQE and CQE contain generic parameters Input and Output as described below,

type Input interface {
t_aio.Submission | t_api.Request

type Output interface {
t_aio.Completion | t_api.Response

Concretely SQE and CQE is defined as follows,

type SQE[I Input, O Output] struct {
Callback func(...)

type CQE[I Input, O Output] struct {
Callback func(...)

For every SQE within the Kernel, there exists a corresponding CQE and the callback and metadata is shared between the two instances.


The Kernel is the control plane of Resonate while the API and the AIO are the data planes of Resonate. The Kernel consists of the Event Loop, the Scheduler and the Coroutine Abstraction.

The accessible API of the kernel is called System and has the following functionalities,

type System struct {
scheduler *scheduler.Scheduler

func (*System) AddOnRequest(
kind t_api.Kind,
constructor func(...) *scheduler.Coroutine[...]
func (*System) Loop() error
func (*System) Shutdown()
func (*System) Tick(...)

The Kernel's Event Loop

The Event Loop takes step every 10ms (we will refer to as Tick) and at each step accepts a batch of requests from API. Subsequently for each request, the event loop creates and submits a coroutine to the scheduler. Apart from submitting coroutines to the scheduler, another important function of the event loop's tick is to schedule coroutines (by invoking scheduler.Tick).

Initially when the event loop is initialized, the kernel registers coroutine constructors based on the API request type using the AddOnRequest function. These constructors are used by the event loop to create the coroutine based on the request type.

system.Loop starts the event loop and system.Shutdown stops it.


The scheduler maintains a queue of coroutines to run and at every scheduler.Tick two things occur. First, callbacks of any Completions (CQE) from AIO are invoked. Second, all coroutines in the queue are resumed sequentially which is where the actual processing of the coroutines occur.

Each coroutine when resumed, can yield the control back with a Submission (SQE) request that needs to be processed or can run to completion. When the coroutine yields control back, the scheduler submits the corresponding Submission to the submission queues of AIO. The callback of the Submission adds the coroutine back to the queue. Note that the callback of the corresponding Completion are the same. Therefore, when the scheduler in the first step invokes the callback of the Completion the coroutine is added back to the queue and subsequently resumed in the same step.

The Coroutine Abstraction

At the heart of the Resonate Kernel exists the coroutines that process API requests. Using clever synchronization between go's native channels, we implement the standard Resume and Yield interface of a coroutine. Concretely,

type Coroutine[I,O any] struct {
f func(*Coroutine[I,O])

func (*Coroutine[I, O]).Resume(i I, e error) (O, bool)
func (*Coroutine[I, O]).Yield(o O) (I, error)

A coroutine can exists in one of 4 states,

  1. Created when the coroutine is created. This is the initial state in a coroutine's lifecycle
  2. Running when the scheduler has resumed the coroutine.
  3. Suspended when the coroutine yields back the control to the scheduler.
  4. Done when the coroutine runs to completion.